Unbalanced Youth Justice

The Burns Institute is in pursuit of an equitable and excellent youth justice system. A system used sparingly and appropriately.  We know that our current youth justice system is not equitable, excellent, or used sparingly and appropriately. More than 47,000 youth were incarcerated on any given night in 2015, most (73 percent) for non-violent offenses. The majority (69 percent) of those incarcerated were youth of color.  Learn more »

Use the tools below to explore this issue »

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »

Year

Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

12 of 82 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 10–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 19

Age of detention

10–17

Standard for detention

Miss. Code Ann. § 43-21-301

(3) The judge or his designee may issue an order to a law enforcement officer, the Department of Human Services, or any suitable person to take a child into custody for a period not longer than forty-eight (48) hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and statutory state holidays if it appears that there is probable cause to believe that:

(a) The child is within the jurisdiction of the court; and

(b) Custody is necessary; custody shall be deemed necessary:

(i) When a child is endangered or any person would be endangered by the child; or

(ii) To insure the child's attendance in court at such time as required; or

(iii) When a parent, guardian or custodian is not available to provide for the care and supervision of the child; and

(c) There is no reasonable alternative to custody.

Miss. Code Ann. § 43-21-303

(1) No child in a matter in which the youth court has original exclusive jurisdiction shall be taken in custody by any person without a custody order except that:

(a) a law enforcement officer may take a child in custody if:

(i) grounds exist for the arrest of an adult in identical circumstances; and

(ii) such law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that custody is necessary as defined in section 43-21-301(3)(b); and

(iii) such law enforcement officer can find no reasonable alternative to custody; or

(b) a law enforcement officer or an agent of the department of public welfare may take a child into custody if:

(i) there is probable cause to believe that the child is in immediate danger of personal harm; and

(ii) such law enforcement officer or agent has probable cause to believe that immediate custody is necessary as defined in section 43-21-301(3)(b); and

(iii) such law enforcement officer or agent can find no reasonable alternative to custody.

(c) Any other person may take a child in custody if grounds exist for the arrest of an adult in identical circumstances. Such other person shall immediately surrender custody of the child to the proper law enforcement officer who shall thereupon continue custody only as provided in section 43-21-303(1)(a).

(4)(a) At the conclusion of the detention or shelter hearing, the youth court shall order that the child be released to the custody of the child's parent, guardian or custodian unless the youth court finds and the detention or shelter hearing order recites that:

(i) There is probable cause that the youth court has jurisdiction; and

(ii) Custody is necessary as defined in Section 43-21-301(3)(b).

Miss. Code Ann. § 43-21-309

(1) A child who has been ordered or taken into custody may be held in custody for longer than temporary custody if:

(a) A written complaint or petition has been filed; and

(b) A court order has been entered for continued custody following a review of that custody at a detention hearing in delinquency and child in need of supervision cases and at a shelter hearing in abuse and neglect cases.

(4)(a) At the conclusion of the detention or shelter hearing, the youth court shall order that the child be released to the custody of the child's parent, guardian or custodian unless the youth court finds and the detention or shelter hearing order recites that:

(i) There is probable cause that the youth court has jurisdiction; and

(ii) Custody is necessary as defined in Section 43-21-301(3)(b).

Detention hearing timeline

Miss. Code. Ann. § 43-21-307.

Within 48 hours of detention, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays

Contact

Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Ray Sims
Division of Public Safety Planning
1025 Northpark Drive
Ridgeland, MS 39157-5216
Phone: 601-977-3760
Fax: 601-977-3764
rsims@dps.ms.gov

There is no DMC website

JJS coordinator

Ray Sims
Division of Public Safety Planning
1025 Northpark Drive
Ridgeland, MS 39157-5216
Phone: 601-977-3760
Fax: 601-977-3764
rsims@dps.ms.gov

DMC subcommittee chair

Jackie Dedeaux

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC Reform efforts

Mississippi is finishing their DMC assessment

State plan

There is no link available to the current State Plan

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee (JJAC) is a state advisory group appointed by the Governor to advise all parts of the State of Mississippi on issues relating to juvenile justice. The committee is overseen by the Mississippi Department of Public Safety Planning which is a division of the Mississippi Department of Public Safety. Within the Department of Public Safety Planning, the JJAC is managed by the Office of Justice Programs. In general, the MS JJAC's goals are to assist the State of Mississippi, particularly the Department of Public Safety, in complying with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. Compliance with this Act will result in more federal funds being allocated to Mississippi, and, more importantly, it will achieve the greater good of improving the juvenile justice situation in both America and Mississippi.

The general goals of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, overseen by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention within the US Department of Justice, are to:

Prevent delinquency and strengthen the juvenile justice system protect children and enhance public safety. These goals are sought through efforts to improve juvenile justice in four "core requirements" within the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act.

SAG chair

Dr. Alfred Martin
MS SAG
P.O.Box 9361
Jackson, MS 39286-9361
alsyukon2@aol.com
amartin@jjacms.org
Website

Organizational structure

The Membership of the JJAC shall consist of not less than 15 and not more than 33 members appointed by the Governor of Mississippi who have training experience, or special knowledge concerning the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency or the administration of juvenile justice.

Committees

  • Standing Subcommittees
  • Grant Review/Project Proposal
  • Legislative
  • Planning/Compliance Monitoring
  • Ad Hoc Subcommittees
  • DMC Subcommittee
  • Mississippi Conference Committee
  • Three-Year Plan Subcommittee

Membership

  • Tia Anderson
  • Tom Broome
  • Robert D. Church, Jr.
  • Frank M. Coleman
  • La'Porschia Daniels
  • Gary Davis
  • Jacqueline Dedeaux
  • Laura Johnson
  • James Maccarone
  • Alfred Martin
  • Lisa Nored
  • Randy Pierce
  • John W. Pruett, M.D.
  • Billy Redd
  • Ginger Smith
  • Audrey Thompson
  • Linda Whittington
  • Eric Williams

About the data

Our website is populated by data provided to us by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). Continue reading for details about the One-day count and Annual decision points data.

Download

Complete downloads of the data are available in several formats:

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Each table of data is also available for download. Click Show table below any table to download just the data shown.