Unbalanced Youth Justice

The Burns Institute is in pursuit of an equitable and excellent youth justice system. A system used sparingly and appropriately.  We know that our current youth justice system is not equitable, excellent, or used sparingly and appropriately. More than 47,000 youth were incarcerated on any given night in 2015, most (73 percent) for non-violent offenses. The majority (69 percent) of those incarcerated were youth of color.  Learn more »

Use the tools below to explore this issue »

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »

Year

Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

9 of 120 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 0–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 18

Age of detention

10–17

Standard for detention

(1) In order for the court to detain a child after the detention hearing, the Commonwealth shall establish probable cause at the detention hearing that the child is a status offender and that further detention of the child is necessary for the protection of the child or the community. If the Commonwealth fails to establish probable cause that the child is a status offender, the complaint shall be dismissed and the child shall be released. If the Commonwealth establishes probable cause that the child is a status offender, but that further detention of the child is not necessary for the protection of the child or the community, the child shall be released to the parent or person exercising custodial control or supervision of the child. If grounds are established that the child is a status offender, and that further detention is necessary, the child may be placed in a nonsecure setting approved by the Department of Juvenile Justice;

Detention hearing timeline

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 610.265.

Within 24 hours following detention Saturday, Sunday and legal holidays for status offenders.

Within 48 hours following the detention, excluding Saturday, Sunday and legal holidays.

Contact

Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Laura McCoun McCauley
State DMC & Title V Delinquency Prevention Specialist
Kentucky Department of Juvenile Justice
8711 Lagrange Rd., Building E
Louisville, KY 40242
Phone: 502-429-7225 ext. 234
Fax: 502-429-7215
LauraMcCoun.McCauley@ky.gov

Website

JJS coordinator

Stephanie Reynolds
Department of Juvenile Justice
1025 Capitol Center Drive, 3rd Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601
Phone: 502-229-6799 (phone)
Fax: 502-573-0307 (fax)
stephaniel.reynolds@ky.gov

DMC subcommittee chair

Pastor Edward Palmer
Sign of the Dove Church
1189 Sunset Drive
Radcliff, Kentucky 40160
Phone:(270) 300-3683
pastorpman@hotmail.com

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

The current state plans for DMC are geared around capacity building and the first two stages of the DMC reduction model: Identification and Assessment. Kentucky is in the midst of completing our States’ DMC assessment, with the University of Louisville; which will eventually serve as the tool for the re-establishment and/or realignment for the DMC efforts in the State of Kentucky and in the identified local DMC communities. The final findings for this project are not projected to be completed until September of 2014.

Once completed, the States’ DMC subcommittee will convene a retreat to focus on an updated Strategic Plan for addressing DMC; to include the establishment of interventions that can most effectively address the deficits and contributing mechanisms that impact DMC; based on these outcomes.

State Plan

There is no link available to the current State Plan

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Juvenile Justice Advisory Board believes that an investment in youth today is an investment in the future. It values a system in which youth are held accountable while being provided appropriate and effective prevention, interventions and treatment programs and services. It values the diversity of all youth and believes that youth should be treated justly, respectfully and equitably regardless of age, race, gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. The Juvenile Justice Advisory Board aspires to make a difference in the lives of Kentucky youth and their families by being the voice for young people without a voice, by building bridges to communication and collaboration at all levels of the juvenile justice system, and by promoting opportunities for all youth to achieve success. The Juvenile Justice Advisory Board is committed to enhancing the quality of life for all youth in the Commonwealth by actively advising the Governor, policymakers and the public on matters related to improving system of care, enhancing interagency community collaboration, and promoting effective programming necessary to serve the whole child.

SAG chair

Nancy Pfaadt
State Advisory Group Chair
219 Old Towne Road
Louisville, KY 40214-4370
Phone: 502-363-4262
npfaadt@aol.com
Website

Organizational structure

The Juvenile Justice Advisory Board is chaired by a private citizen appointed by the Governor. The members of the board are appointed by the Governor with no fewer than 15 members and no more than 33 members. A majority of the members cannot be full-time employees of any federal, state, or local government and at least one-fifth are under the age of twenty-four when appointed.

Committees

Executive Subcommittee
The Executive Subcommittee reviews multi-year and annual action plans, reviews proposed state and federal legislation, develops JJAB activities, programs and policies, recommends special subcommittees or task forces and sets the level of decision-making authority for any special subcommittee or task force created. They set the overall policy for subcommittees and task forces, and hear and dispose of internal appeals from actions taken by any standing or special subcommittee.

Grants Subcommittee
The Grants Subcommittee assists in the development and implementation of the grant process and makes recommendations regarding the awarding of grants.

Budget Subcommittee
The Budget Subcommittee develops a budget for the expenditure of the State Advisory Group allocation under the JJDP Act of 1974.

SEJAY Subcommittee
The SEJAY Subcommittee advises the JJAB and the general public of the Commonwealth of Kentucky on the issue of disproportionate minority representation in the juvenile justice system, and its causes and remedies; advocates for the full implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, especially the fourth core requirement; develops policy and funding recommendations relating to this issue; and supports efforts to improve the quality of juvenile justice for all Kentucky citizens.

Nominating Subcommittee
The Nominating Subcommittee keeps an up to date nominating grid of all of the current members of the JJAB along with the category of members needed or mandated by statute. They identify candidates for appointment by the Governor as member's terms expire and they prepare a ballot of at least one person for chair and at least one person for vice-chair.

Policy and Program Subcommittee
The Policy and Programs Subcommittee assists in the development and implementation of the three year plan and annual updates.

Subcommittee of Kentucky Youth (SKY)
The Subcommittee of Kentucky Youth (SKY) unites youth across the state in an effort to advise the Kentucky Juvenile Justice Advisory Board on issues concerning youth. The SKY strengthens the image of youth by encouraging and empowering youth in their educational endeavors and future goals; providing opportunities for the youth of Kentucky to develop leadership skills through service and advocacy.

Membership

  1. Hasan Davis, Chairperson
  2. Nancy Pfaadt, Vice Chairperson, Community Volunteer
  3. Bridget S. Brown, Commissioner, Department of Juvenile Justice
  4. Melanda Adams Juvenile Justice System
  5. Hon. Eugene Clark, Circuit Judge
  6. Kelly Cline, Youth Member
  7. Ann Ferriell, Director, Safe and Drug Free Schools
  8. Eugene Foster, Undersecretary, Children & Family Services
  9. Paige Lay, Cumberland Valley Childrens Advocacy Center
  10. Cindy W. Hess, Detective, Jefferson Police Department
  11. Barbara Kaminer, Program Administrator, Department for Mental Health & Mental Retardation
  12. Leilani Krashin, Department of Public Advocacy
  13. Gary Mielcarek, United Parcel Service
  14. Amy Hale Milliken, Warren County Attorney
  15. Danny Orazine, County Judge Executive
  16. J. Todd P'Pool, Attorney at Law
  17. Hon. Cathy Prewitt, District Judge
  18. Racynnio Rankin, Youth Member
  19. Stephanie Reynolds, KY Child Now
  20. Lincoln Bradley Sloas, Youth Member
  21. Elizabeth Taylor, Deparment of Education
  22. Kaye Templin, Director, Gateway Juvenile Diverson Program
  23. Michael Walker, Attorney at Law
  24. Lisa H. Wallace, Assistant Professor, Eastern Kentucky University
  25. Patrick Yewell, Administrative Office of the Courts

About the data

Our website is populated by data provided to us by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). Continue reading for details about the One-day count and Annual decision points data.

Download

Complete downloads of the data are available in several formats:

Download the data »

Each table of data is also available for download. Click Show table below any table to download just the data shown.