Unbalanced Youth Justice

The Burns Institute is in pursuit of an equitable and excellent youth justice system. A system used sparingly and appropriately.  We know that our current youth justice system is not equitable, excellent, or used sparingly and appropriately. More than 47,000 youth were incarcerated on any given night in 2015, most (73 percent) for non-violent offenses. The majority (69 percent) of those incarcerated were youth of color.  Learn more »

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One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »

Year

Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

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Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

7 of 99 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 0–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 18

Age of detention

14–17

Standard for detention

1. A child shall not be placed in detention unless one of the following conditions is met:

a. The child is being held under warrant for another jurisdiction.

b. The child is an escapee from a juvenile correctional or penal institution.

c. There is probable cause to believe that the child has violated conditions of release imposed under section 232.44, subsection 5, paragraph "b," or section 232.52 or 232.54, and there is a substantial probability that the child will run away or otherwise be unavailable for subsequent court appearance.

d. There is probable cause to believe the child has committed a delinquent act, and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) There is a substantial probability that the child will run away or otherwise be unavailable for subsequent court appearance.

(2) There is a serious risk that the child if released may commit an act which would inflict serious bodily harm on the child or on another.

(3) There is a serious risk that the child if released may commit serious damage to the property of others.

e. There is probable cause to believe that the child has committed a delinquent act involving possession with intent to deliver any of the following controlled substances:

(1) A mixture or substance containing cocaine base, also known as crack cocaine, and if the act was committed by an adult, it would be a violation of section 124.401, subsection 1, paragraph "a," subparagraph (3), paragraph "b," subparagraph (3), or paragraph "c," subparagraph (3).

(2) A mixture or substance containing cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers, and if the act was committed by an adult, it would be a violation of section 124.401, subsection 1, paragraph "a," subparagraph (2), subparagraph subdivision (b), paragraph "b," subparagraph (2), subparagraph subdivision (b), or paragraph "c," subparagraph (2), subparagraph subdivision (b).

(3) A mixture or substance containing methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of isomers, or analogs of methamphetamine, and if the act was committed by an adult, it would be a violation of section 124.401, subsection 1.

f. A dispositional order has been entered under section 232.52 placing the child in secure custody in a facility defined in subsection 3, paragraph "a," or "b."

g. There is probable cause to believe that the child has committed a delinquent act which would be domestic abuse under chapter 236 or a domestic abuse assault under section 708.2A if committed by an adult.

Detention hearing timeline

Iowa Code § 232.22(4).

Within 24 hours of detention excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays.

Contact

Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Dave Kuker
Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning
Lucas State Office Building, 2nd Floor
321 East 12th Street
Des Moines, IA 50319
Phone: 515-281-8078
Fax: 515-242-6119 (fax)
dave.kuker@iowa.gov

Website

JJS coordinator

Dave Kuker
Juvenile Justice Specialist
Lucas State Office Building, 1st Floor
Des Moines, IA 50319
Phone: 515-281-8078
Fax: 515-242-6119
dave.kuker@iowa.gov
dave.kuker@cjjp.state.ia.us

DMC subcommittee chair

Wayne Ford
Phone: 515-288-4742
wford14275@aol.com

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

DMC reform efforts are taking place in Black Hawk, Johnson, Polk and Woodbury

State plan

3-year plan beginning 2012

State Advisory Group (SAG)

Administration of Grant Programs:
Juvenile Justice Youth Development Allocation Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention Act Formula Grant Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grant Enforcing Under Age Drinking Laws Training & Technical Assistance:Comprehensive Community Planning
Coordination of State & Local Prevention & Youth Development Programs Delinquency Case Planning Juvenile Detention Policies and Practices Minority Youth & the Juvenile Justice System Gender-specific Delinquency Services

SAG chair

Rita Ferneau
3348 Highway 63
Malcom, IA 50157
Phone: 641-528-5160 (Home)
theferneaus@gmail.com
Website

Organizational structure

The JJAC is appointed by the Governor pursuant to federal law to oversee Iowa's use of a federal juvenile justice formula grant and to develop plans for system improvements.

Committees

  • Criminal & Juvenile Justice Planning Advisory Council
  • Juvenile Justice Advisory Council
  • Justice System Research, Planning & Data Coordination
  • Juvenile Justice Sytem Community Support

Membership

  • Kimberly Baxter Iowa Accountability Program Des Moines
  • Bruce Bernard Polk County Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative Urbandale
  • Brad Buckley Urban Dreams Des Moines
  • Kim Cheeks Office on the Status of African Americans Des Moines
  • Charles Clayton AFES Fort Dodge
  • Janice Edmunds-Wells Iowa Department of Public Health Des Moines
  • Rita Ferneau Youth Services Provider, Retired Malcom
  • David Gleiser Woodbury County Detention-Reform Sioux City
  • Bob Greenlee Law Enforcement, Retired Shell Rock
  • Todd Hensley Third Judicial District Sioux City
  • Stephanie Hernandez Family Resources, Inc. Davenport
  • Margaret Johnson Iowa County Attorneys Association Sidney
  • Sandy Lint Department of Human Services Des Moines
  • La Tasha Massey Johnson County Social Services Iowa City
  • Marcy Mendenhall, LISW, RPT Scott County Kids Davenport
  • Sephan Pearson Juvenile Court Services Sioux City
  • Alba Perez Office of Latino Affairs Des Moines
  • Marvin Spencer Department of Correctional Services Waterloo
  • John Spinks, Jr. Homes of Oakridge Des Moines
  • Miguel Trevino Juvenile Court Services Davenport
  • David Tristan 7th Judicial District Davenport
  • John D. Wauters Juvenile Court Services Burlington

About the data

Our website is populated by data provided to us by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). Continue reading for details about the One-day count and Annual decision points data.

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Complete downloads of the data are available in several formats:

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Each table of data is also available for download. Click Show table below any table to download just the data shown.